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What are the causes and risk factors for a Hiatus Hernia?

A Hiatus Hernia occurs when a part of the stomach bulges through the diaphragm into the chest cavity. The diaphragm, a large, thin sheet of muscle that assists in breathing and separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity, has a small opening called the hiatus through which the esophagus passes before connecting to the stomach. In individuals with a hiatus hernia, this opening allows the upper part of the stomach to protrude through it, leading to potential discomfort and various symptoms. Understanding the causes and risk factors associated with hiatus hernia is crucial for prevention, effective management, and seeking the best treatment options, such as the best hiatus hernia surgery in Delhi NCR, for those who require surgical intervention.

Causes of Hiatus Hernia

The exact cause of a hiatus hernia is not always clear, but several factors may contribute to its development:

Increased Pressure on the Abdominal Cavity

Conditions that increase pressure within the abdominal cavity can lead to the development of a hiatus hernia. Such conditions include persistent coughing, vomiting, straining during bowel movements, or physical exertion, especially lifting heavy objects. Over time, this increased pressure can push the stomach upward through the hiatus.

Changes in Diaphragm Muscle Strength

Age-related changes or inherent weaknesses in the diaphragm muscle can make the hiatus more prone to allowing the stomach to bulge through. The muscle and surrounding tissues may weaken with age, increasing the risk of herniation.

Injury or Surgery

Trauma to the area, such as from an injury or a surgical procedure, can weaken the tissues around the hiatus or damage the diaphragm itself, making a hiatus hernia more likely.

Congenital Factors

Some individuals are born with a larger-than-normal hiatus, which can increase the risk of developing a hernia.

Risk Factors for Hiatus Hernia

While the specific cause of a hiatus hernia might not always be identifiable, several risk factors increase the likelihood of developing this condition:


Hiatus hernias are more commonly observed in people aged 50 and above. This is possibly due to the weakening of the diaphragm and other supportive structures around the hiatus as part of the aging process.


Excess weight, particularly around the abdomen, significantly increases the pressure on the abdominal cavity and the diaphragm, raising the risk of a hiatus hernia.


Tobacco use can lead to a weakening of the muscles around the esophagus, including those that make up the diaphragm, contributing to the formation of a hiatus hernia.


Pregnancy can increase the pressure within the abdominal cavity, especially during the later stages, potentially leading to the development of a hiatus hernia.

Symptoms and Complications

Many people with a hiatus hernia do not experience symptoms and may not even be aware they have the condition. When symptoms do occur, they often resemble those of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), such as heartburn, regurgitation of food or liquids into the mouth, difficulty swallowing, and chest or abdominal pain. In severe cases, a hiatus hernia can lead to complications such as strangulation of the herniated stomach part, which is a medical emergency requiring immediate attention.


A hiatus hernia occurs when part of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity, potentially leading to discomfort and a range of symptoms. Factors such as increased abdominal pressure, age-related changes, obesity, smoking, and congenital conditions contribute to the risk of developing this condition. While many cases of hiatus hernia are asymptomatic, significant symptoms or complications may necessitate surgical intervention. In such cases, the Delhi NCR region offers exceptional medical facilities and experienced surgeons capable of performing the best hiatus hernia surgery, providing relief and improving the quality of life for affected individuals.

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